Speaking

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Conception strands

Chapter 1. Wittgenstein’s conception of Philosophy I begin by comparing Wittgenstein’s conception of philosophy to Russell’s, noting that they held different views of philo- sophy in relation to natural science. Wittgenstein’s method of examples’ is compared with the Socratic method. Might philosophy be different from what it in fact is? Wittgenstein was a philosopher of language; the theory of meaning as fundamental. Examples given of the Private Lan- guage Argument and the philosophy of mathematics. Recapitu- lation. Appendix 1. Translation of ‘Ober Dogmatistnus’ from Wittgenstein und der Wiener Xreis. (pp 182 – 184) Appendix 2. Translation of a chapter of the Big Typescript on the nature of philosophy (pp 406 – 435). Corresponding passages noted.”

Chapter 2 . Preliminary considerations in the Tractatus A sketch of the genesis of the Tractatus, showing that Wittgenstein placed great emphasis on the doctrine of showing and saying. Tractatus concerned with a perfect language? No, but with the conditions for any language. ‘Ordinary’ and ‘logical’ propositions in the Moore notes were not explained adequately. The possibility of ‘semantic ascent’ in relation to the doc- trine of saying and showing. Sketch of the picture theory. Explanation of the difference between ‘abbilden’, ‘darstellen’ and ‘vertreten’. Discussion of isomorphism and the relation between language and ontology. Example taken of relation”of Names and Objects. Structure and form. Comparison with Frege, and Frege’s problems with ‘the concept horse‘. Waismann’s criticism of Frege’s use of Bedeutung repudiated.”

(2021) Strands in the theory of meaning from Frege to Wittgenstein, Available at: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:5ee5ba66-e52c-4695-b6b9-c17517137078 (Accessed: 06/03/2021).

The idea of Critical Theory (take up an idea from someone else and move the theory on).

“The idea of a critical cosmopolitanism is relevant to the renewal of critical social theory in its traditional concern with the critique of social reality and the search for immanent transcendence …

Geuss, R.(1981) The Idea of a Critical Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press” Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=D81mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT144&dq=idea+of+critical+theory&ots=M8ufKLjS8d&sig=7dMaeRbyqQMvr0A303k0qLJnaF8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=idea%20of%20critical%20theory&f=false (Accessed: 06/03/2021).


Philosophy [the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.] or photography theory


Think clearly about, image, text, voice and their relationship between each other.


Theoretical perspectives

Sociologists today employ three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interactionist perspective, the functionalist perspective, and the conflict perspective. These perspectives offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explaining how society influences people, and vice versa.

Further reading – Introduction to Sociology – https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives/


Don’t apologise

People generally only notice your mistakes when you draw attention to them. Don’t tell people you’ve forgotten something…they don’t know that. Just take a pause, have a drink of water, and move on.

Speak slower

You’re almost certainly speaking too fast. Slow down a bit. And a little bit more. Perfect.

Speak to the back of the room

If you’re projecting your voice to the back of the room then you know everyone can hear you. If people need to strain even the tiniest bit to hear you, then you’ll lose them immediately.

Pause

The pause is one of the most effective tools in public speaking. It emphasises the point you just made. It allows your audience to digest information. It grabs people’s attention. It allows you to compose yourself and remember what’s next.

Don’t be afraid to pause…even for 10 or 15 seconds – it feels a lot longer to you than to your audience.

Look at your audience

Don’t look at the slides behind you – have a copy in front of you so that you never turn your back. Don’t look at the floor. Don’t look at the walls. Try and take the time to make eye contact with every person in the room. Even if you only make eye contact once, an audience member will come away feeling as though you spoke directly to them.

Remember your audience wants you to do well

They’re there because they want to learn and want to be entertained. Even if they were forced to attend, they still want to get the most out of it. They want you to succeed. They are on your side…even if it doesn’t feel like it.”

Business Matters (2021) Strands in the theory of meaning from Frege to Wittgenstein, Available at: The 7 basic rules of public speaking (Accessed: 06/03/2021).


Hold to time

Never over run on time